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Combustion Test Results Downloads Page

The Overview
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The problem
The Waste
The Green Generator
Why Water Burns
Supporting Information
The Science

The Injection System Specifications and Calculations




 Water injection parameters;


  1. The delivery of the water charge must be during or immediately after the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder has exploded, (nanoseconds post ignition) when momentarily, all of the heat that is released during the combustion is available in the cylinder. And at which time its’ most effective energy exploitation is possible, since it is before the heat is absorbed by the cooling system, or exported down the exhaust.
  2. The water needs to be supplied under sufficient pressure to adequately overcome the cylinders’ internal pressure spike of 700 psi at the time of the combustion explosion (The estimated delivery water pressure requirement being 1,400 to 2,800 psi or 2 to 4 times the 700 psi spike pressure which needs to be achieved).
  3. The water needs to be controlled and precisely metered and that volume also needs to be widely adjustable (on the prototype) starting from no water delivery on activation to past the calculated optimum + 100% (Double the calculated optimal volume)
  4. No water should be delivered when the heat is not available in the cylinder to evaporate it, and there definitely must not be any deliver of subsequent water charges into the cylinder, before the cylinder again fires off its’ next fuel/air mixture, assuring that the heat is now available to evaporate **an appropriate** amount of injected water to steam. **During adjustment of the water charge, and when the water delivery volume is corrected to within the tolerances for the particular motor, each cylinder will be noticed to fire consistently with each subsequent ignition condition, ** (every two revolutions on a four stroke, and every revolution on two stroke engines).
  5. Since this system capitalizes on the “Waste Heat” produced by all internal combustion engines, irrelivant of the type of fuel being used, so it stands to reason that this system could be used on any hydrocarbon fueled engine with equally beneficial results, similar fuel savings, GHG entrapment and reduced pollution




Given that,

-Water weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. (1728 62.4 = 27.69 cubic inches / pound)

-1 BTU = the amount of heat that is required to raise 1 pound of water 1 F

-960 BTU = the amount of heat required to change the state of 1 pound of water @ 212 F, under one atmosphere of pressure, to steam @ 212 F.

-Also given; that there are on average about 104 BTU’s of heat contained per cubic foot of fuel/air mixtures as used in most internal combustion engines. (Reference; Mechanical Engineering Handbook)




            The maximum amount of heat required to change 1 pound of water from liquid starting @ 32 F water to steam @ 212 F calculates as follows; 180 BTU (32 F > 212 F) + 960 BTU (the heat energy absorbed in “change of state”) to total 1,140 BTUs/pound of water being needed.

            To calculate the amount of water 1 BTU will evaporate to steam is as follows,

Since water weighs 62.4 LBS/ cubic foot (or 1728 cubic inches) then; 1728 62.4 = 27.69, so there are 27.69 cubic inches in a pound of water. Needing 1,140 BTU’s available to turn this 27.69 cubic inches of water to steam, then 1 BTU could evaporate *.02428 cubic inches of water to steam (27.69 cubic inches 1,140 BTU = *.02428 cubic inches/BTU)




            It would further equate that with 104 (BTU) available per cubic foot of ‘perfect’ fuel/air mixture, when these 104 BTU’s are now divided by 1728, it is found that there is .0601851 BTU of heat available per cubic inch of fuel/air mixture. (104 1728 = .0601851)


            Using an example engine with 6 cylinders and 300 cubic inch displacement (for ease of calculations), having a 50 cubic inch displacement per cylinder, when that is multiplied by .0605851, then during each power stroke the actual heat released is 3.029 BTU. (50 x .0605851= 3.029) This applied at a rate of * .02428 cubic inch/BTU of water would evaporate .0735 cubic inches of water to steam. (.02428 x 3.029= .0735). The expansion to steam of this injected water represents an additional volume of 117.6 cubic inches in the combustion chamber (.0735 x 1600=117.6) this occurs at a time when the piston is only to the half way point of its travel to BDC (bottom dead center). By this time the volume in the cylinder above the piston, has also increased to 25 cubic inches and consequently is only under less than half of the 700 PSI pressure spike of the fuel/air mixture explosion at TDC (top dead center). of the crankshaft.


            Continued precise and accurate computation would involve among other influences, the increase in energy release through more complete combustion, the actual consequence of the “quenching effects” of the water during it’s absorption of the heat. Along with the resulting temperature change of the combined vapor charge, heat loss through radiation from the cylinder to the atmosphere, and heat transfer to the cooling system of the motor. More complex than just the “Perfect Gas Formula”,  V1x P1 / T1 = V2 x P2 / T2, where V = volume(s), P = absolute pressure(s) and T = absolute temperature(s).


            However, in applied science and the practice of mechanical engineering standards, it would be accepted that there will be an over-all pressure increase; when an additional vapor volume is caused or represented within a given containment volume. Along with the concession that saturated steam would naturally be expected to have a greater pressure than the original hot and “dry” combustion products did, due to the increase in mass at a higher humidity.



            The result is “more ‘Bang for the buck’” through a correspondingly higher fuel efficiency by converting the (2) explosive energies, first the ‘fuel’, then the ‘steam’ explosions as applied pressure against the reciprocating pistons’ effective area, increasing the amount of torque produced by the engine, while using the same amount or less fuel.

            Along with the exponentially compounding effect of having ‘additional water’ (more than that which results from the hydrogen combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel/air) present during the combustion process, which provides an increased amount of available oxygen, that in turn facilitates a more complete carbon energy release from the carbon portion of the hydrocarbon fuel as well.

            All of which is caused by the characteristic disassociation of water under extreme temperature and pressure to its’ primary elements of hydrogen and oxygen, making more than adequate oxygen available to complete the carbon combustion process, also. This is extremely important since it is during the ‘complete’ carbon combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel that up to 90% of the fuel energy release occurs, attributing 10% of the energy release as the result of the hydrogen combustion. This explains why some studies project a possible increase in fuel efficiency of up to 100% when there is adequate oxygen available for complete combustion of “all” of a hydrocarbon fuels’ energy.          Consequently, it would only require 50% of the original amount of fuel to do a given amount of work when all of its energy is released.

            Currently, nearly half of the fuel is wasted because it is only ‘partially combusted’, with the resulting pollution ‘dumped’ as un-burnt fuel, particulate and soot into the very air we and our children breath…














In CIMAC in May 2001, the largest congress for marine and stationary engines in the world, many engine

builders have announced that they apply the water injection into the cylinder to reduce the NOx emission. There are

three methods of water injection into the cylinder, FWE (Fuel Water Emulsion), SFWI (Stratified Fuel Water Injection)

and DWI (Direct Water Injection) [1]. At the last COMODIA in 1998, the authors presented about the effect of stratified

fuel water injection to reduce NOx and smoke at the same time [2].


[1] Jorach, R.W. et al. : MTZ 61 (2000) Nr.12, pp.854-861.

[2] Takasaki, K. et al. : Proc. COMODIA 98 (1998), pp.57-62.

*1 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

Improvement of flame combustion using BFO-water emulsion



Visual Study on Combustion of Low-Grade Fuel Water Emulsion

*Hiroshi Tajima, Koji Takasaki, Masayoshi Nakashima, Keiichiro Kawano Makoto Ohishi*1, Jun Yanagi*1 and Shin-nosuke Osafune*1

Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University

6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-City, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan

The present study, to confirm the effect of fuel-water emulsion on combustion, experiments have been carried out using a visual engine and a visual combustion chamber. In the figure to the right it shows the burning flames in the two cases, (a) pure BFO (Bunker Fuel Oil) and (b) BFO-water emulsion. The combustion system of the visual engine simulates the one for low-speed marine engines.


According to it, the flame of (b) shows the better combustion state less soot-cloud and less after-burning than the flame of (a). In the presentation, reduction of the flame temperature measured by the two-color method and reduction of the soot formation inside the flame observed by the back diffused laser photo technique applying the fuel-water emulsion are introduced.


Click on the following link for the complete study
(This is a 3.46 MB PDF Download)

[PDF] Visual Study on Combustion of Low-Grade Fuel Water Emulsion


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