The Injection System Specifications and Calculations
Water injection parameters;
- The delivery of the water charge must be during or immediately after the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder
has exploded, (nanoseconds post ignition) when momentarily, all of the heat that is released during the combustion is available
in the cylinder. And at which time its’ most effective energy exploitation is possible, since it is before the heat
is absorbed by the cooling system, or exported down the exhaust.
- The water needs to be supplied under sufficient pressure to adequately overcome the cylinders’
internal pressure spike of 700 psi at the time of the combustion explosion (The estimated delivery water pressure requirement
being 1,400 to 2,800 psi or 2 to 4 times the 700 psi spike pressure which needs to be achieved).
- The water needs to be controlled and precisely metered and that volume also needs to be widely adjustable
(on the prototype) starting from no water delivery on activation to past the calculated optimum + 100% (Double the calculated
- No water should be delivered when the heat is not available in the cylinder to evaporate it, and there
definitely must not be any deliver of subsequent water charges into the cylinder, before the cylinder again fires off
its’ next fuel/air mixture, assuring that the heat is now available to evaporate **an appropriate** amount of
injected water to steam. **During adjustment of the water charge, and when the water delivery volume is corrected to within
the tolerances for the particular motor, each cylinder will be noticed to fire consistently with each subsequent ignition
condition, ** (every two revolutions on a four stroke, and every revolution on two stroke engines).
- Since this system capitalizes on the “Waste Heat” produced by all internal combustion engines,
irrelivant of the type of fuel being used, so it stands to reason that this system could be used on any hydrocarbon fueled
engine with equally beneficial results, similar fuel savings, GHG entrapment and reduced pollution
-Water weighs 62.4 pounds per
cubic foot. (1728 ÷ 62.4 = 27.69 cubic inches / pound)
-1 BTU = the amount of heat
that is required to raise 1 pound of water 1º F
-960 BTU = the amount of heat
required to change the state of 1 pound of water @ 212 ºF, under one atmosphere of pressure, to steam @ 212º F.
-Also given; that there are
on average about 104 BTU’s of heat contained per cubic foot of fuel/air mixtures as used in most internal combustion
engines. (Reference; Mechanical Engineering Handbook)
The maximum amount of heat required to change
1 pound of water from liquid starting @ 32º F water to steam @ 212º F calculates as follows; 180 BTU (32º F > 212º F) +
960 BTU (the heat energy absorbed in “change of state”) to total 1,140 BTUs/pound of water being needed.
To calculate the amount of water 1 BTU will evaporate
to steam is as follows,
Since water weighs 62.4 LBS/
cubic foot (or 1728 cubic inches) then; 1728 ÷ 62.4 = 27.69, so there are 27.69 cubic inches in a pound of water. Needing
1,140 BTU’s available to turn this 27.69 cubic inches of water to steam, then 1 BTU could evaporate *.02428 cubic inches
of water to steam (27.69 cubic inches ÷ 1,140 BTU = *.02428 cubic inches/BTU)
further equate that with 104 (BTU) available per cubic foot of ‘perfect’ fuel/air mixture, when these 104 BTU’s
are now divided by 1728, it is found that there is .0601851 BTU of heat available per cubic inch of fuel/air mixture. (104
÷ 1728 = .0601851)
Using an example engine with 6 cylinders and
300 cubic inch displacement (for ease of calculations), having a 50 cubic inch displacement per cylinder, when that is multiplied
by .0605851, then during each power stroke the actual heat released is 3.029 BTU. (50 x .0605851= 3.029) This applied at a
rate of * .02428 cubic inch/BTU of water would evaporate .0735 cubic inches of water to steam. (.02428 x 3.029= .0735). The
expansion to steam of this injected water represents an additional volume of 117.6 cubic inches in the combustion chamber
(.0735 x 1600=117.6) this occurs at a time when the piston is only to the half way point of its travel to BDC (bottom dead
center). By this time the volume in the cylinder above the piston, has also increased to 25 cubic inches and consequently
is only under less than half of the 700 PSI pressure spike of the fuel/air mixture explosion at TDC (top dead center). of
Continued precise and accurate computation would
involve among other influences, the increase in energy release through more complete combustion, the actual consequence of
the “quenching effects” of the water during it’s absorption of the heat. Along with the resulting temperature
change of the combined vapor charge, heat loss through radiation from the cylinder to the atmosphere, and heat transfer to
the cooling system of the motor. More complex than just the “Perfect Gas Formula”, V1x P1 / T1 = V2 x P2 / T2, where V = volume(s), P = absolute pressure(s) and T = absolute temperature(s).
However, in applied science and the practice
of mechanical engineering standards, it would be accepted that there will be an over-all pressure increase; when an additional
vapor volume is caused or represented within a given containment volume. Along with the concession that saturated steam would
naturally be expected to have a greater pressure than the original hot and “dry” combustion products did, due
to the increase in mass at a higher humidity.
The result is “more ‘Bang for the
buck’” through a correspondingly higher fuel efficiency by converting the (2) explosive energies, first the ‘fuel’,
then the ‘steam’ explosions as applied pressure against the reciprocating pistons’ effective area, increasing
the amount of torque produced by the engine, while using the same amount or less fuel.
Along with the exponentially compounding effect
of having ‘additional water’ (more than that which results from the hydrogen combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel/air)
present during the combustion process, which provides an increased amount of available oxygen, that in turn facilitates a
more complete carbon energy release from the carbon portion of the hydrocarbon fuel as well.
All of which is caused by the characteristic
disassociation of water under extreme temperature and pressure to its’ primary elements of hydrogen and oxygen, making
more than adequate oxygen available to complete the carbon combustion process, also. This is extremely important since it
is during the ‘complete’ carbon combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel that up to 90% of the fuel energy release occurs,
attributing 10% of the energy release as the result of the hydrogen combustion. This explains why some studies project a possible
increase in fuel efficiency of up to 100% when there is adequate oxygen available for complete combustion of “all”
of a hydrocarbon fuels’ energy. Consequently,
it would only require 50% of the original amount of fuel to do a given amount of work when all of its energy is released.
Currently, nearly half of the fuel is wasted
because it is only ‘partially combusted’, with the resulting pollution ‘dumped’ as un-burnt fuel,
particulate and soot into the very air we and our children breath…
ALTHOUGH LESS FUEL IS BEING USED, MORE
ENERGY IS RELEASED!